Corruption in the Philippines




the Philippines is considered one of the

most corrupt countries in the

asia-pacific region and has caused many

problems to the country through the

years this is according to the research

of the transparency international index

2018 transparency international index is

a global civil society organization that

leads the fight against corruption and

is the organization that releases the

corruption perception index the

corruption perception index ranks

countries and territories based on how

their public sector is perceived to be

it is a collection of Paul's composite

index and drawing a corruption related

data collected by various international

reputable institutions in the

transparency corruption index in 2018

the Philippines ranked 99th out of 180


jumping to have levers from drunk 111 in

the 2017 index the Philippines scored 36

out of 100 which is far below the 44

score of the region come and join us as

we trace the historical background of

corruption in the Philippines identify

the difference between graft and

corruption and enumerate the forms and

methods of corruption in the Philippines

this video will also help us assess and

evaluate different policies against

corruption and we will try to propose

solutions that will eliminate or at

least reduce corruption




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in its simplest definition corruption is

a dishonest behavior and unlawful mean

usually done by people in authority or

have a high power corruption is present

anytime anywhere

there is corruption in houses there is

corruption in firms schools churches and

especially in the government let us

focus on corruption in the government as

this is a big problem that our country

has faced through the years we may often

hear the word graph together with

corruption and there is always a

misconception that graft and corruption

are the same but the truth is it is not

so let us not differentiate the meanings

between graft and corruption by taking a

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corruption tournament santa maria

differentiated graft and corruption from

the video shown in pv v last april 27

2016 when cut about a governor Emmylou

Mendoza was charged by the Sandiganbayan

santa Meza also reiterated that graft is

an illegal gaming of

well corruption is the improper use of

funds graft and corruption are often

charged to high government officials who

abuse their powers when public funds are

used for their own benefits honesty

integrity principles of the officials

are compromised because of corruption it

can be hard to tell the difference

graft is a specific type of corruption

where one uses his position to benefit

from illegal transactions for example

when Filipino officials works in the

Armed Services Committee he cannot use

his advantage to buy stocks from a

defense company although graft and

corruption go together most of the time

we will only focus on corruption in the

government in the Philippines

particularly in this video






David Prescott burrows who was a former

colonial official served as chief of the

Bureau for non-christian tribes and

colony superintendent for education in

the Philippine Islands

well world war 1 is happening he was in

an intelligence officer of the country

and then became the president of the

University of California from 1919 to

1923 throughout the span of his career

he wrote the 1905 history of the

Philippines and the 1914 a decade of

American colonial that showed his

interest to the country Burroughs didn't

trust the Philippine government

he believed in imperialism he admired

governor-general unite with who's Manuel

Quezon Sark nemesis the delayed

Philippines interdependence in tackling

the history of corruption in the

Philippines writings of the American

generals can be one of the basis

Burroughs despised regional principalía

up to national elite represented by the


he studied where corruption started

almost everywhere a great example is

dumped at once from Muslim Mindanao

anyone who read about the Moro province

being Koshka for war Lord Alice known by

the AMPA to ins and express it in Gloria

macapagal-arroyo Orville Wood who is a

devout administrator during the 1980

Todd burrows that public officials are

pocketing money from the municipality in

box 34 of Burroughs paper in the

archives of UC Berkeley there is big

talk being made in the Filipino papers

about the large amount of money being

spent in the department of Mindanao and

Sulu over its income for the uplift of

the Morris all of which is a farce it is

not being spent for Morris but for the

salaries of relatives of the influence

the northern provinces who have been

sent here these days when the government

sends money to Mindanao people see it as

a way of corruption we can assume that

the reason why Mara's hate the

government is because the government

itself has cheated to them since the

nineteen hundreds

according to borrows letters contained

in box for these small rows do not give

respect and ready to fight against the

Philippine government




there are three types of corruption in

the public sector first is political

corruption this is the abuse of public

power office or resources by elected

government officials for personal gain

by extortion soliciting or offering

bribes the anti-graft and corrupt

practices criminalizes active and

passive bribery embezzlement extortion

abuse of office and conflict of interest

in the public sector bribery of public

officials and trading in influence are

also criminalized in the anti LED tape

app the app forbids office holders from

accepting any gifts or material benefits

in exchange for any government permit or

license under the revised Penal Code

gifts are classified as indirect bribery

an exception is made for gifts of

insignificant value given as a token of

friendship in line with local customs

one example of political corruption is

bought buying in 2018 nine people have

been arrested by the police for alleged


in the Baron guy and Sangguniang

Kabataan elections despite massive

reports of such election violation in

the region of calabaza second is

corruption among the police pacifically

it is a form of police misconduct

designed to obtain financial benefits

personal gain career advancement for a

police officers in exchange for not

pursuing or selectively pursuing an

investigation or arrest there is a high

risk of corruption when dealing with the

police the national police force is

widely regarded as one of the most

corrupt institutions in the country

reports of the police and military

engaging in corruption extortion and

being involved in local rackets are

widespread in one corruption case Police

Commissioner mr. sombrero is under

investigation for allegedly facilitating

50 million peso bribe from gambling

tycoon Jacqueline who tried to bribe

immigration authorities in order to

release approximately 1300 Chinese

nationals who were working in resorts

illegally last is judicial corruption

this refers to corruption related miss

condom of judges through receiving are


bribes improper sentencing of convicted

criminals bias in the hearing and

judgment of arguments and others such

misconduct corruption risks are higher

in the judicial system bribes and

irregular payments in return for

favorable judicial decision are common

the judiciary is firmly independent but

the rich and powerful have frequently

influenced proceedings in civil and

criminal cases in one case a businessman

filed an administrative complaint in the

country's Supreme Court against Makati

City judge for allegedly asking for a 15

million bribe in exchange for a

favorable ruling in an insurance claim

corruption often comes in many different

forms and methods one note that should

be taken is that corruption does not

necessarily need to be monetary any

official or office that do against the

public and benefits their personal or

their families or their friends interest

is considered corruption one form of

corruption are those payoffs and bribes

this is the act of giving money goods or

services to unofficial in exchange for

favorable treatment for example a DTI

examiner is bribed with money by a

Chinese businessman who sells steel

products that do not meet the required

standard quality instead of charging the

businessman with charges and violations

the examiner will just list the company

cleared for the operation another form

is graft and embezzlement this is when

elected officials divert some of the

money supposedly for government projects

into their personal accounts or use

funds owned by another person or group

for their own personal benefit a timely

example would be the use of government

funds for the campaigning of an

incumbent official for an upcoming

elections despite being their

responsibility to spend government funds

for the public they will use this as a

tool for them for campaigning blackmail

and extortion is when government

officials uses their power and influence

to threaten another person into behaving

a certain way or threatens to reveal

incriminating information about someone

in order to coerce that person into

cooperating with them if a police

officer finds out that his chief police

officer in the present is engaged in

illegal doings the chief police would

use his authority in order that the

police officer who caught him keeps

quiet by extortion

lastly when an official lets their

appointments by influenced by

inappropriate or illegal factors this is

called preferential treatment this is

evident when availing of public

privileges those who have connections

with officials will have preferential

treatment of the benefits




the culture of corruption

the daily activities in our country the

question is when and how did the culture

of corruption start in our country we

will answer this question by tasting the

long history of corruption starting from

the colonial Spanish era

in the pre-colonial

ear the area where corrupt behavior

could conceivably have arising is due to

the superiority of the chips which can

be acquired only by inheritance overdose

of their barangay without resistance and

pure acceptance the Chiefs arm agonal

would enslave some people definitely not

a family member and treat them as their

possessions in which they could traders

another example of opportunity for

corruption are the fines imposed as

penalties for crimes and the tributes

that the lower classes were supposed to

play all the corruption was already

visible in the pre-colonial era the

Spanish regime is generally the period

that characterized prevalence of graft

and corruption for over 300 years the

spaniards demonstrated their power and

authority when stealing the local people

about the intention of spreading the

catholic faith in the long run the

friars who are known as leaders of the

church became a massive force in terms

of political and religious corruption

the friars took over the land of the

natives as they built schools and

churches that nick division brought

about in philippine society by the

spanish empire was tremendous get a

broad taste of the ethnic division in

Spanish colonial Philippi historian Jose

Gaia remarks the native villapiano's or

India's where the lowest in the pecking


looked down upon by the peninsulares in

solaris and mestizos he benefits of

belonging to the Spanish ethnicity as to

be of Spanish descent whether pure or

mixed or in a person the privilege of

tax and labor exemption of freedom of

movement among during the American

colonial public officials were barred

from engaging in private businesses

without the consent of the


many public officials took advantage of

this rule that resulted two different

scandals during the era there were also

provisions that were comparable with the

practices of the Spaniards which

concerned the justices of the Peace of

the towns where Filipinos live because

of curious oversight Filipinos were not

paid salaries but only permitted to

collect fee for their services the

public officials became the perpetrators

of petty corruption there were also

instances that a group of officials who

committed petty crime for civilians

discharged soldiers what entered the

civil service without an examination

those who committed this wrongdoing were

promptly dead and punished according

corruption also happened under the

administration of the politicians in the

American ear specifically under surges

Mannion Manuel Quezon government funds

are used by politicians further

relatives Keynes and supporters through

appointment on different government

positions Manuel Quezon used the Manila

railroad company to employee supporters

but never used the company for his own

benefit morover surges mania took

control of the Philippine National Bank

and used the offices to repay political

debts and appointed people even without

the knowledge and the industry and bank

management after the war the United

States gave out 640 million dollars

worth of rehabilitation funds people

were allowed to claim based on the

damage caused to them however among

those who drew cash from the

rehabilitation funds were relative

Filipino families with vast investments

in land and commerce many of the raw

allies benefited from the free trade as

American market demand for primary

commodities such as sugar coconut oil

and hemp revived plantation production

the rehabilitation finance corporation

asked to sell materials read 200 million

pesos turned over only 28 million passes

to the government after 3 years of

operation the rest was never accounted

for in the term of President Corino he

himself was charged with the extending

favors to relatives and profligacy

particular in ownership of a golden

chamber pot and with tolerating

corruption in Congress a popular freeze

during those days was 10% it means that

an official who demanded 10% from

importers and businessmen who sought a

license to open an import substitution

business State corporations during the

Garcia term such as the National

Development Corporation became an

opportunity for corruption bribery

fraudulent transactions and favoritest

ratio himself candidly admitted that

when it came to cronyism his presidency

had become a sheet has gathered a lot of

barnacles along the way I cannot shake

them red

the second year in office Filipinos saw

no difference between Garcia and Carina

in terms of corruption timely media

exposes of government corruption sealed

the fate of mapa gas reform if Miguel

was forced to back down from his

legislative agenda his defeat soon

brought to light other compromises

these include arrangements with certain

senators not to disrupt their smuggling

operations in exchange for votes and

sweetheart deals with American

agricultural interests to rent public

lands at bargain prices for banana and

pineapple production the firing of

Justice Secretary Jonah was described by

the Philippine Free Press as a major

setback in the administration's crusade

against graft and corruption the Marcos

era the preeminence of patronage and

local interests also created a new

relationship between the executive and

legislative branches but most

characteristic was the way dominant

social forces family clans settler

leaders landed elites eviscerated the

implementation of state initiatives

through infiltration and corruption the

more the executive tried to accomplish

the more deals were needed the bigger

the program the more spoils to be

distributed the stricter leader controls

the more opportunities for bribery after

the Marcos era an estimated amount of

twenty seven point two billion dollars

worth of debt was inherited by docken

administration in 1986 much of that

amount had been lost off a total of ten

to fifteen million dollars were sent to

private bank accounts abroad which led

to significant support for restructuring

or even repudiating portions of the

death this of course was opposed by

international financial institutions and

other creditors who wanted the

Philippines to honor its financial

obligation in the modern era there is a

discretionary fund commonly known as

pork barrel which are appropriated for a

particular official which shall be

disbursed only for public purposes to be

supported by appropriate lodges and

subject to such guidelines as may be

prescribed by law and their own

statement signal the return of patronage

pal other examples of corruption which

are market oriented and

innovative include the use of funds from

government controlled financial

institutions to support corporate

takeovers to rescue ailing banks and

corporations and to buy into companies

coveted by the president and his family

joseph estrada a former president of the

philippines used his influence to help

atrani manipulate the stock exchange to

add our old cases such as strata

shameless defense of the corporate

interests of cohen cohen tan in the name

of removing government interference from

the private sector




corruption is a really big problem that

a country needs to solve in order to

fight and eliminate corruption in the

government there are some practices and

policies that could be implemented first

the public should have the proper access

to information of public officials this

would promote transparency since it

would increase responsiveness of the

latter while gaining positive effect

terms of participation in social issues

because citizens can properly track the

activities of government bodies under

transparency BIR should also have annual

assessment of public officials based on

the past a lot of politicians are

earning income during little with that

BIR should be strict in examining

politicians and their work generations

so that citizens can track whether or

not he or she score another way is

through strict implementation of

submission of financial statements

regarding their assets and liabilities

and make it also available to the public

with this the Filipino people can easily

be informed about what is happening in

the government as well as tracking the

nation's funds the public will also now

see if their income is coming from their

cell from their businesses and others

however this solution also have negative

impacts that include harm or threat to

public officials because of loss of

privacy since information like statement

of assets and liabilities are easily

accessible and through dissolution the

Filipino people would gain various

knowledge and where their taxes and

funds are allocated and what projects

each official is working on for the

better voting in the next elections

another solution to eradicate corruption

is by filtering the candidate list of

any government position any candidate

who has a criminal record or issues of

corruption should not be given the

chance to run or be appointed for office

the downside of this solution is that

Filipinos would have no perfect

assurance they're guaranteed that the

officials they're electing or appointing

are competent enough for the position

despite that it would still give

Filipinos assistance in order to select

the candidate without second thoughts

and elect or appoint the most capable

official a solution that would also help

in solving corruption is through regular

mandatory surprise examining

of all government offices since CSC will

be monitoring government of employees

employees will be obliged to strictly

follow the rules this is to ensure that

government workers are doing their job

well and complying with the anti LED

tape law however this kind of solution

may be prone to more corruption because

of cotton and leghe's schemes despite

that this could still help since

government offices are expected to be

more efficient and productive as this

will significantly reduce the number of

employees playing mobile games and

watching videos and their phones during

office hours

the fourth solution that could be done

to stop corruption it's true penalizing

those who offer bribes in this way it

would help in finding out who exercises

corruption from the lowest ranking

public servant to the highest official

in the government this solution would be

able to hold those who violate the haunt

of all however this might not work if

the highest official can't be touched

and can still manipulate lower ranking

employees nevertheless since penalties

will be imposed and the violators should

be held accountable corruption in the

government will significantly decline

government workers will work lawfully

and decently that all government

transactions would have no records of