the

Natural gas production and marketing in the Marcellus Shale

yes produced straight from the well is

often not suitable for commercial

purposes it's mixed with

naturally-occurring water from the

formation which needs to be removed

through several processes and gas needs

to be brought to the proper pressure for

transport

now these processes are called

production production starts with the

gas and water running in a flow line

from the wellhead to the production

equipment here on site from the time the

gas and water reached the wellhead to

the time they leave this location safety

measures are in place to protect the

environment

our primary element of protection is the

tree Christmas trees are always

engineered to be able to withstand

maximum wellhead pressures from this

point gas and minerals will flow down

the flow line we use two types of

protection computerized and pneumatic

devices that continuously monitor that

flow if in fact there is any change in

that flow it'll send out an alarm and

it'll be shut in at the wellhead nothing

will be able to go beyond this point

from the flow line gas reaches the

equipment called a separator and you

guessed it this unit separates the water

from the gas the separator also is

equipped with an emergency shutdown

valve and is lined with a steel tray

that produce fluids travel from the

separator into the tanks the tanks are

set in secondary containment in the

event of a release the containment is

engineered to hold one-and-a-half times

the capacity of the largest tank in the

battery the containment is made of heavy

plastic supported by a full perimeter

steel frame in addition to that we have

a radar level detector in the top of the

tank so if the level in the tank gets

too high an alarm will be triggered and

that flow can be shut down remotely or

on location from the tanks water is

hauled by truck to Chesapeake's

innovative aqua renew facilities which

allow Chesapeake to reuse 100% of its

produced water the gas travels to a

sales meter like this one the meter

monitors the pressure and volume of gas

flowing into each pipeline system if

needed gas may receive some additional

compression here at this production

location so it's able to have sufficient

pressure to enter the pipeline or gas

can receive further compression and

processing at a larger site called

central delivery point or CDP the CDP

receives the natural gas from many wells

the more gas entering the facility the

more compressors are needed on site

often compressors are housed in

buildings are surrounded by sound walls

to reduce noise to nearby areas a

special processing unit you can often

find at a CDP is called a dehydrator

it's another piece of equipment that

removes water from the gas to meet

specified contract terms gas comes into

contact with the glycol at the contact

your tire glycol is an agent that bonds

with water at this point the glycol is

sent to the reboiler or is heated to

approximately 300 to 70 degrees at that

temperature the glycol will release its

water in the form of steam the glycol

then returns to the contactor tire where

assumes the process the result is

cleaner drier gas from the CBP or

directly from the wellhead production

equipment the pipeline brings gas to a

location where it'll be processed and

compressed again depending on its

condition and what the utilities buying

the gas required pipelines can cross

miles and miles of land land that's

treated with the highest respect for its

existing condition before the pipe can

be safely installed underground the

pathway or right-of-way is cleared and

graded once the pipeline is built and

installed we restore this right-of-way

with vegetation as we're working on the

pipeline Chesapeake protects sensitive

areas neighboring the right-of-way from

any erosion or dirt runoff we use two

devices we use cell fence and silt sack

the silt sock is new to the industry

it's easier to install it requires no

excavation that's a sock filled with a

compost material that we place and stake

on our right aways and the edges of our

topsoil piles to keep any sediment from

eroding during the rain shower will move

miles of steel pipe into position we

call this stringing the pipe different

pipe is used in different situations

during the gathering stage of transport

when natural gas travels from the well

to a central processing facility and

then to the consumer oh by the way much

of the pipe we use is made locally the

coating that we have here is fusion

bonded

oxi that's applied at the factory and

it's used in prevention of corrosion and

pitting of our pipe and our pipe

diameter sizes vary from six inch to

twenty-four depending on the volume of

gas we need to carry to our delivery

points the strung pipe rests on skids

wooden platforms which protect and

stabilize it until it's placed in the

trench see these white coverings on the

end of the pipe we call these night caps

we put them on open pipe when we leave

the jobsite each night to protect

against invasion by animals before the

pipes buried it's aligned with precision

accuracy and fused with at least three

and as many as five super-strong welds

at each joint depending on pipe

thickness this work is done by highly

skilled welders creating more employment

opportunities for local workers this

pipe clamp that they use for a lineup

for to weld their pipe joints together

once the pipes in place here well adjust

this down to get a true alignment on our

pipe the welders are then start welding

it about ten percent of the weld

completed then they'll pull the clamps

off continued the required amount of

passes complete the weld and then to

move on to the next joint x-rays taken

on-site with a special mobile unit

determine if there's even the slightest

flaw in the welded joint that could lead

to weakness the first thing we're going

to do when we set up on our pipe is

we're going to cone off the area for

safety using the appropriate distances

depending on the strength of our camera

at that point then we will set up on the

film we shoot three shots per weld to

cover three hundred sixty degrees of the

weld after that we will go to the truck

which is a mobile darkroom process the

film dry it and then I will view it for

any defects in the weld any potential

problem areas are revealed removed ree

welded and re x-rayed when the pipe

joint is determined sound it's painted

with an epoxy coating to protect the

joint underground and there's still more

protection soil conditions might require

a rock crusher to pulverize larger rocks

into trench before backfilling so

there's less risk of damage to the pipes

coating over time now you run the G

meter down the pipe picked up any

corrosion rough spots or bare metal if

it will be patching whenever you find

any

and you heat up saying the pipe heat it

up and then put pipe dope on it and then

you run the NEET beater back over the

top of it if it don't be better than you

go a rock shield can be wrapped around

pipes to further protect them safety is

key when installing a pipe line when the

pipe in the trench are ready the pipe

goes in the side booms will hook onto it

with belts they'll pick it up the formal

motion for the tractors to boom over

into the center of the ditch they'll let

it down the welders will clean the ends

of the pipe and then weld it to the far

end and then let it down on the bags and

come to this end and cut the pipe to

length and weld it together also there's

one more important safety tests before

gas flows through the line the

underground pipe is filled with water

that reaches a pressure at least one and

a half times greater than the highest

pressure pipe gas will ever reach any

possible leaks will be detected during

this hydrostatic testing and then repair

in some cases the pipe line needs to

travel around or under an obstacle that

can't be disturbed like a stream a rock

formation or a road so pipe can navigate

these areas several ways one way is to a

process called boring which brings the

pipe under the area on areas when we're

building out right away we have to get

from point A to point B we use a method

called boring in which we have to drill

a hole larger than the diameter of our

pipe to get from one side to the other

to connect their pipe line another way

to lay a pipe line across the road by

actually cutting the road up here where

we cross our municipal roads that are

gravel or unimproved highways we trench

we start in the middle the road we

trench half way across and we'll put

steel plates over to so we can maintain

traffic around once that side's

accomplished then we switch to the other

side and we'll open cut that trench

Millea plate over that and then we'll

have a trench underneath and traffic can

flow freely over the road when pipes

need to work around angles they can

actually be bent skilled engineers can

literally create a bend in the pipe

without stressing the pipe or its joints

it's just to get to whatever to well so

it is we have to go with the contour of

the land and we can't to go around

obstacles so we have to bend the pipe to

go around that obstacle to get to where

we got to go

ongoing care ensures the pipeline can

last indefinitely our leak detection is

done by survey it's either done areally

with helicopters or airplanes where they

look for signs of a gas leak or manually

we walk the pipeline with leak detection

equipment such as our flame ionization

unit and diagnose the problem if there

is one regular checks and procedures

maintaining the pipes integrity give a

pipeline limitless distance potential

here in the u.s. there are lines

bringing natural gas from one end of the

country to the other

it's pretty amazing if you stop to think

about it