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Mitochondria structure and function | Cell Physiology medical animation

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mitochondria structure mitochondria are

intracellular organelles found in almost

all human cells mitochondria are thought

to be derived from the Arabic bacteria

that invade the proto eukaryotic cell

more than a billion years ago and lived

in a symbiotic relationship with it

exchanging energy in the form of

adenosine triphosphate for residents

however this endosymbiotic hypothesis is

not universally accepted and has been

challenged each human cell contains on

average hundreds to thousands of

mitochondria the exception is mature red

blood cells which rely exclusively on

anaerobic metabolism and contain no

mitochondria although mitochondria were

originally represented as individual

isolated organelles it is now recognized

that mitochondria form a dynamic

connected Network also called a

reticulum or syncytium mitochondria have

four main compartments the outer

membrane which is permeable to certain

ions and small molecules the inter

membrane space which has a composition

similar to that of cytosol the inner

membrane in which are found the

respiratory chain proteins the inner

membrane is folded into multiple cristae

allowing for a large surface area the

matrix or the inner part of the

mitochondrion where most of the

metabolic reactions take place the

mitochondrial DNA is found within DNA

protein complexes called nucleons in the

mitochondrial matrix function

mitochondria are intracellular

organelles that are essential for

aerobic metabolism and energy production

through oxidative phosphorylation which

is accomplished by the respiratory chain

however mitochondria are not only the

ATP producing powerhouses of the cell

mitochondria are involved in several

other metabolic pathways including beta

oxidation the Krebs cycle

and the synthesis of iron sulfur

clusters in addition mitochondria

maintain replicate and transcribe their

own DNA and translate mRNA into protein

the import and assembly of proteins is

another important mitochondrial function

since most proteins that the

mitochondria require are encoded by

nuclear DNA and translated in the

cytosol the ongoing remodelling of the

mitochondrial Network is also a function

of the mitochondria additional roles of

mitochondria and apoptosis production of

reactive oxygen species calcium

homeostasis maintenance of lipid

membrane and immunity have been

described