Europe Physical and Climate (1)


your first heading that we're going to

be looking at is physical geography of


your first subheading is seas peninsulas

and islands europe and asia share a

common land mass called Eurasia it's the

connection between Europe and Asia Asia

is connected with Europe west of the

Ural Mountains most of Europe lies

within 300 miles of a Sea coast the

first aspect of seas peninsulas and

Islands that I want to look at is the

Netherlands the struggle with the sea

25% of the Netherlands lies below sea

level since the Middle Ages the Dutch

have built what's known as dikes these

are large banks of earth and stone their

purpose is to hold back the sea new land

has been reclaimed because of these

dikes these reclaimed lands are called

polders these are drained and kept dry

by windmills and they've have provided

hundreds of thousands of acres of

farmland for the Netherlands I want to

look at the peninsula's of Europe

remember a peninsula is a strip of land

that is surrounded on three sides by

water I we're going to look at the

northern peninsula stir stir up is a

large Peninsula made up of smaller

peninsulas because of glaciation which

occurred in the last ice age this is

when glaciers were all over the land of

Europe because of glaciation fjords were

carved out of the northern peninsulas a

Ford is a long narrow steep sided Inlet

on the Atlantic coastline specifically

the Scandinavian Peninsula which is what

we're looking at with a northern

peninsula many fjords provide very fine

harbors for ships to come in these

fjords you can see our jagged and

they're cut out of the land of the

Scandinavian Peninsula another northern

peninsula is Denmark it has the

potential of Jutland as it juts out into

the North Sea now to the southern

peninsula we have the Iberian Peninsula

which extends off the south

turn edge of Europe this is the home of

Spain and Portugal

you've got the Pyrenees Mountains that

separate the Iberian Peninsula from the

mainland of Europe you have the Apennine

Peninsula this is the peninsula that

houses Italy the boot that stretches out

into the Mediterranean Sea and then you

have the Balkan Peninsula which is aged

surrounded by the Adriatic and Ionian

Sea on the west with the Aegean and

Black Sea on the east now moving on to

mountains and Plains the first we're

going to look at mountains there's a

couple of mountain ranges that I want to

look at the first is the bend neva snout

in range of the British Isles these are

a very old mountain range and we know

this because this mountain range is

rounded at the top because of erosion

you will also have the Pyrenees

Mountains which are next to Spain these

are young mountains because they're very

tall and rugged and erosion has not

affected them yet there's also the Alps

this is the crescent-shaped mountain

range that extends from southern France

to the Balkan Peninsula now moving on to

planes the north european plane was

flattened by glaciers millions of years

ago the north european plane is home to

the Ruhr this is a region in Germany

that is very rich in coal that fuelled

industrialization this is spelled are

you H R the Ruhr also this North

European Plain is extremely fertile but

essentially what's most important about

this plane nowadays is the coal and

these resources that are found there now

moving on to water systems

there's many rivers that flow inland

from the mountains to the coast

what Europeans have done is they have

connected these rivers with canals which

have enhanced transportation routes and

natural waterways canals armed and

man-made waterways that are put there

for economic purposes or transportation

purposes now a couple of rivers I want

to point out to you the first is the

Thames in England it looks like the

Thames but it is not it is the Thames

that Thames in England allows a

going ships to reach the port in London

it's that big we have the Rhine which is

the most important river in Western

Europe this connects many industrial

cities which makes it the most important

River in Western Europe and then we have

the Danube which is Eastern Europe's

most important river and then the last

heading in physical geography is

resources the main thing I want to point

out to you is the availability of coal

this field the Industrial Revolution and

pretty much catapulted Europe to

becoming one of the most developed

continents in the world now moving on to

your second major topic of this section

of notes climate and vegetation first

subsection I want to look at is water

and land climates vary from cold barren

Tundra and subarctic of Iceland Norway

Sweden and Finland to the warm shrub

covered Mediterranean coasts of Italy

Spain and Greece water is the unique

determiner of climate in Europe think

about this the northern latitude of

Europe makes it very cold

however because of warm water ocean

currents areas warm next to the coast

that should normally be cold because of

its latitude so water is the key

determiner climate of Europe now I want

to look at Western Europe first much of

Western Europe has a marine West Coast

climate which means it has mild winters

cool summers and abundant rainfall the

Atlantic oceans Gulf Stream and northern

extension the North Atlantic drift bring

warm waters to this part of Europe from

the Gulf of Mexico and regions near the

equator this is extremely important in

determining the climate of Europe these

warm waters off of the Gulf Stream

around the Gulf Coast and the equator

make their way to Europe because of the

North Atlantic drift and warm the area

most of the natural vegetation in Europe

are in the Western Europe is deciduous

and coniferous

for us forst's deciduous forests are

made of trees that lose their leaves in

the fall coniferous forests are like

needles of leaves their leaves are like

needles now moving on to southern Europe

much of southern Europe has a

Mediterranean climate which is has warm

dry summers and mild rainy winters

there's also a pocket of humid

subtropical climate in northern Italy

and the Balkan Peninsula also Spain has

a drier steppe climate the Alps create a

rain shadow effect to the south side of

their mountain range which creates a

drier area you've also got wind system

determiners of climate in southern


you've got Mistral's which are strong

winds from the Alps that bring cold cold

winds to southern France and cool the

temperatures and then you have the

siroccos which are high dry winds from

northern Africa and they bring very hot

and dry climate temperatures to this

region and then the last climate region

I want to look at is the eastern and

northern European climate region this is

pretty much just cold in the east the

warm Atlantic currents cannot reach that

far and so it gets colder once the

currents of than the wind system can't

carry it anymore in the north it's just

a very high latitude so it's cold so

much so that there's permafrost with a

soil literally frozen year-round