the

Endangered Species in Madagascar

[Music]

xenotype lives granted the area as a

species of blind snake endemic to

madagascar

it is thought that these snakes used to

have eyes but lost use of them over time

members of the genus xenotype lips are

distinguishable externally from the

typhlopety by possessing a greatly

enlarged and nearly circular rostral

shield and a single enlarged anal shield

they are considered to be critically

endangered the two biggest threats to

these species are energy production

via mining quarrying and biological

resource use via logging and

unintentional effects

brookhia desperada is a species of

chameleons

it is endemic to fort diambre special

reserve in north madagascar

and is a critically endangered species

due to the decline of its habitat

this decline is attributed to clearance

of forest for crops

charcoal production timber extraction

small-scale quarrying and cattle grazing

it was named desperado to provoke

thought regarding the desperately

threatened habitat of madagascar's

microendemic species

claire's mouse lemur is a newly

described species of lemur from the

genus of the mouse lemurs

it lives on the island nosey bay in the

ansaranana province of madagascar

this lemurs with a weight of 60 grams

average for its genus

the fur of the upper part is reddish

brown and becomes darker in the middle

of the back

the tail is also reddish brown but the

underbelly is white or creamy the

northern sport of lemur is nocturnal

foraging for food at night and sleeping

in the day

the lemurs sleep in holes or dense

foliage in trees ranging from one to

eight meters

females will leave their young on a

branch when foraging for food

males are solitary and territorial and

their territories often overlap with

many female home ranges

male lemurs will aggressively defend

their territories in the mating season

the species of large bacteria filled

ceca

which helps them to digest plant matter

such as cellulose and break it down into

sugars and starches

the northern sport of lemur is preyed on

by th native malagasy tree boa which

hunts the lemurs while they are sleeping

in tree holes

large birds of prey are also natural

predators of the lemurs

along with these ecological threats the

arboreal lemur species are also highly

threatened by human charcoal production

which still continues to remove the only

remaining forest habitat of the lemurs

greatly restricting the range

hawk's sport of lemur is a sport of

lemur endemic to madagascar

it is a moderately large sportive lemur

with a total length of about

50 to 68 centimeters of which 22 to 27

centimeters are tail

the red ruffed lemur is a very clean

animal and spends a lot of time grooming

itself in in social grooming

flogging burning of habitat cyclones

mining

hunting and the illegal pet trade are

primary threats

they also have natural predators such as

large snakes

eagles and the fosa the creation of the

masawala national park in 1997 has

helped protect this species

but many red rough lemurs do not live

within the park's boundaries

and are still at high risk recent

studies show that they are critically

endangered with a declining wild

population

illegal logging has increased since 2009

which has reduced the available forest

habitat

illegal logging for valuable tropic

hardwoods such as rosewood

is a particular threat and linked to

political instability

the captive population of red rough

lemurs stands at 590 animals

perrier safakas use vocalizations to

communicate

including warning calls and have even

been observed to make a sound described

as sneezing

it moves in small family groups through

the canopy feeding on fruit

leaves flowers buds and seeds

groups have territories around one

hectare and vocalize with each other

the main threats faced by this safaka

are habitat destruction and

fragmentation due to slash and burn

agriculture

charcoal gathering and logging the

international union for conservation of

nature has rated its conservation status

as critically endangered and is

considered to be one of the 25 most

endangered primates in the world

the silky safaka has a variable social

structure

and lives in groups of two to nine

individuals

it spends most of its day feeding and

resting though it also devotes a

considerable amount of time to social

behaviors

such as playing and grooming as well as

traveling

it is hunted throughout its range as no

local fatty exists against eating this

species

habitat disturbance such as slash and

burn agriculture

illegal logging of precious woods and

fuel wood also occurs within the

protected areas where it is found

local villages adjacent to its remaining

protected areas adopted a two-pronged

strategy towards silky safaka

conservation education

first a cognitive component was

implemented to increase

knowledge and awareness through radio

interviews slide

presentations and the disbursement of

literature in 12 primary and secondary

schools

additionally an emotional component was

begun to link silky safaka conservation

with positive emotional experiences

with the goal of establishing a

psychological connection between the

children and the lemur

like all safakis the golden crown safaka

is a vertical clinger and leaper

and its diet includes mostly seeds and

leaves

its estimated population is 18 000

individuals

it is primarily active during the day

although it also tends to be active at

dawn and dusk during the rainy season

it sleeps in tall emergent trees and is

preyed upon by the fosa

the small range and fragmented

populations of this species weigh

heavily on its survival

forest fragmentation habitat destruction

poaching

slash and burn agriculture and other

human factors threaten its existence

the flat-backed spider tortoise is

confined to lowland fragments of dry

deciduous forest found only on the west

coast of madagascar

the forests inhabited by the flat-backed

spider tortoise grow on loose sandy

soils and the tortoises take shelter

amongst the leaf litter of the forest

floor during their inactive seasons

due to its habitat restrictions the

flat-backed spider tortoise is

considered to be critically endangered

its major threat comes from habitat loss

due to the process of deforestation

particularly from burning and clearing

for agricultural lands or cattle grazing

highway development mining and petroleum

exploration

brookie jabansi is endemic to singhi de

namaroka strict nature reserve in

mahajanga province

it is found on and restricted to the

more humid parts of the reserve

it was found at elevations between 100

and 200 meters above mean sea level

it is believed to be found over an area

less than 100 square kilometers

and many surveys in western madagascar

have failed to record this species

because of the small area in which it is

found the international union for

conservation of nature has ranked the

species as critically endangered because

the climate continues to suffer due to

the collection of wood

the primary distinguishing

characteristic of the bizarre nosed

chameleon is the single large rostral

appendage appearing on the males

mostly due to its extremely small range

and ongoing habitat loss the bizarre

nosed chameleon is ranked as critically

endangered

its population is probably declining and

conservation action is necessary to

prevent extinction

the madagascan fish eagle is a large

bird of prey in the family axipatrity

which also includes many other diurnal

raptors such as kites and buzzards

total population estimates from the

united nations and from grambo

place the world population of this

species at about 40 breeding pairs

according to grambo this bird may be one

of the rarest birds on earth

the main threats to its breeding habitat

are deforestation

soil erosion and the development of

wetland areas for rice paddies

it is also in direct competition with

humans for fish stocks

because of its decline in numbers and

the threats it faces it has been

assessed the bird's conservation status

is being critically endangered

the blue-eyed black lemur has not been

studied intensively in the wild but it

is known to be fairly social

it has also been observed to be a highly

aggressive species

there is frequent infighting between

troop members especially during the

breeding and birthing seasons

in captivity it has been observed

committing infanticide against other

species of lemurs

a behavior that is usually uncommon

especially in captivity

humans have cut down almost all of this

species habitat to clear farmland

as a result the blue-eyed black lemur is

nearly extinct in the wild

as few as 1 000 individuals are thought

to remain in the wild

largely due to slash-and-burn habitat

destruction as well as a mild threat

from hunting problems

mongoose lemurs are arboreal with the

ability to jump several meters from one

tree to another

they live in small family groups usually

consisting of a bonded pair and one to

three offspring

these groups rarely encounter one

another but when they do

they are aggressive captive mongoose

lemurs can live up to 26 years

while wild specimens live 18 years

mongoose lemurs in the wild are

threatened by the destruction and

fragmentation of the forests in which

they

live and also by hunting their numbers

have dwindled by about 80 percent over a

period of 25 years

biologists have named the tarzan

chameleon of flagship species because of

its colorful appearance and because the

area lacks other flagship species from

madagascar

biologists are using this species to try

to support and purpose significance in

conservation of fragmented forests in

madagascar

the chameleon has green to light yellow

coloration and has a dark transversal

band when it is

historically the madagascan pashad

preferred shallow lakes and marshes with

dense vegetation

however the rediscovered population was

found in a cold

deep crater lake that had few aquatic

plants and was surrounded by heavy

forest

and other remote crater lakes may have

been inhabitable due to the birds

requirements for shallower water

they do not migrate do not usually form

flocks and are usually found in pears or

as single ducks

the duck probably started to decline

dramatically sometime in the late 1940s

the cause of decline was the

introduction of numerous fish species in

the lake that killed most of the

pischard chicks and damaged nesting

sites

adult birds are also likely to have

become victims of introduced fishes

rice cultivation cattle grazing on the

shores burning of shore vegetation

introduced mammals

gill net fishing and hunting are all

factors that led to the duck's

disappearance from the lake

because it is a recently discovered

species little is known about the gurp's

mouse lemur behavior

communication ecology or reproduction

the species appears to be restricted to

a small region of lowland evergreen

rainforest and is seriously threatened

by forest loss

there are no protected areas within the

known geographic range of gurps mouse

lemur

because it lives in lowland forests

which are more likely to be converted

into agricultural land relative to

highland rainforests

it faces an elevated conservation risk

the ala otra lac bamboo lemur is the

only primate specifically adapted to

living in papyrus reeds

unlike other bamboo lemurs it does not

eat bamboo

instead it feeds on the stems of papyrus

reeds shoots of grass

its the population is declining as

suitable habitat around the lake is

being destroyed and converted to rice

fields

other threats include the burning of the

marshland and hunting of the lemurs for

food in the pet trade

the greater bamboo lemur is one of the

world's most critically endangered

primates

scientists believe that itwas extinct

but a remnant population was discovered

in 1986 with a population of about 500

individuals the species is endangered by

slash and burn farming

mining bamboo and other logging and

slingshot hunting

it feeds almost exclusively on one the

bamboo species

preferring the shoots but also eating

the pith and leaves

it is unknown how their metabolism deals

with the cyanide found in the shoots

the typical daily dose would be enough

to kill humans

greater bamboo lemurs occasionally

consume fungi

flowers and fruit its main food source

is bamboo and it is the main reason why

it has become critically endangered

areas with high density of bamboo have

major human disturbances

where humans cut or illegally cut down

bamboo

black and white ruffed lemurs

demonstrate the rare behavior of female

social dominance both within and outside

the context of feedings

this is also found in other rough lemurs

as well as in ring tailed lemurs and red

ruffled lemurs

aggressive interactions between males

and females are usually won by the

female

even when they do not show aggressive

behavior towards the male

unlike other species of lemurs black and

white rough lemur females occasionally

show submission and more aggression

needs to be maintained in order for the

female to win the interaction instead of

having an undecided interaction

while predators may be a large threat to

the black and white rough lemur

the principal threat to their survival

comes from the human inhabitants of the

island

since they are comparatively large to

other species of lemurs they are hunted

as bush meat by poachers and village men

who are looking to feed their families

another threat to the lemurs is the

agricultural practices of the local

community

the slash and burn method of agriculture

is very devastating to the natural

habitat of the black and white rough

lemur

the diatom safaka makes a warning call

resembling the sound

kiss sneeze when a terrestrial predator

is perceived

its sole terrestrial predators are the

fosa and nile crocodile

its primary threat is habitat reduction

due to shifting cultivation by native

peoples

this threat is also present even within

designated national parks which are

sufficiently distant from the center of

government

that enforcement of existing national

laws protecting the lemur habitat is

problematic

pressures of overpopulation in central

and eastern madagascar are causing many

of the rural poor to seek subsistence by

seizing whatever forest lands are

available and undertaking slash and burn

tactics as their initial step in a

shifting cultivation system

indriya is a diurnal tree dweller

related to the safakas and

like all lemurs it is native to

madagascar

it is revered by the malagasy people and

plays an important part in their myths

and legends with various

stories in existence accounting for its

origin the main threats faced by the

injury are habitat destruction and

fragmentation due to slash and burn

agriculture

fuel wood gathering and logging it is

also hunted despite taboos against this

the injury practices long-term monogamy

seeking a new partner only after the

death of a mate

it lives in small groups consisting of

the mated male and female in their

maturing offspring

in the more fragmented forests of their

range the injury may live in larger

groups with several generations

habitat fragmentation limits the

mobility and capacity of these large

groups to break into smaller units

as its name indicates the golden bamboo

lemur feeds almost exclusively on

grasses

especially the giant bamboo feeding on

new shoots leaf bases in the creepers

the growing shoots of this bamboo

contain 0.015 percent of cyanide

each adult lemur eats about 500 grams of

bamboo per day

which contain about 12 times the lethal

dose of cyanide for most other animals

of this size

the population is declining

predominantly due to hunting into

ongoing habitat loss

with only about 1 000 individuals

remaining

the principal loss of habitat is due to

slash and burn agriculture or the

harvesting of bamboo

for use as a building material as well

as for carrying water and basket making

james's sport of lemur is a sportive

lemur endemic to madagascar

it is one of the larger sportive lemurs

with a total length of about

60 to 67 centimeters of which 28 to 32

centimeters are tail

james's sport of lemur is found in

southeastern madagascar

living in primary and secondary lowland

forests

the grey-headed lemur is only found in

southeastern madagascar

in 2005 satellite imagery estimates

showed approximately 700 square

kilometers of total remaining habitat

within its geographic range

it is highly threatened by hunting and

habitat loss and was considered to be

among the 25 most endangered primates in

2006.

bella lunda chameleon is a species of

chameleon that is endemic to madagascar

it is one of only five critically

endangered reptiles extremely threatened

by extinction

it has an extremely small range being

restricted to an area of four square

kilometers

its original habitat was gallery forest

but this has all been cleared and it is

now found in the canopies of the

non-indigenous trees that have been

planted and in the few remaining mature

trees

its main threat is from the significant

amount of logging occurring for the

manufacture of charcoal in this area

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